Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

PTSD, now classified as a “trauma and stress related disorder” in the DSM V- TR, instead of its former classification as an anxiety disorder, develops in response to a traumatic event. The definition of triggering events was more expansive in the fourth edition of the manual; currently a triggering event is defined as “exposure to actual or threatened death, serious injury or sexual violation.” Triggers can be associated with events related to:

  • Witnessing/experiencing of wartime atrocities
  • Combat
  • Being a victim/witness of crime
  • Natural disasters, such as earthquakes and tsunamis
  • Sexual and physical assault, domestic violence
  • Childhood sexual abuse/neglect
  • Motor vehicle accidents, air plane accidents
  • Childbirth complications, birth trauma, unexpected birth outcomes
  • Medical diagnoses, medical interventions
  • Traumatic loss of a loved one, including suicide
  • Other traumatic events such as house fires

Features of PTSD include:

  • Flashbacks to the traumatic incident
  • Intrusive/ruminative thoughts about the trauma
  • Heightened startle response
  • Nightmares, insomnia
  • Intense anxiety/panic when thinking about the trauma, also known as “hyperarousal”
  • Depressed mood, numbness
  • Memory problems, sometimes being unable to remember aspects of the trauma
  • Emotions such as anger, guilt (sometimes “survivor guilt” about being the lone survivor)
  • Indecisiveness
  • Social withdrawal
  • Avoidance of situations and people that trigger memories/thoughts about the event

Not everyone that experiences trauma develops PTSD. Here to Help BC estimates that about 15% of those exposed to trauma will go on to develop PTSD. The reasons for this are not clear.  Many believe it is a complex combination of childhood experiences, previous traumatic events and biology. As noted above, for an official (medical) diagnosis of PTSD, there needs to be a triggering event involving exposure to actual/threatened death/serious injury or sexual violation.

Unofficially, a person may experience classic symptoms of PTSD in response to a trigger that does not meet this revised definition. Complex PTSD is an example of this. The survivor’s experience remains very real, very legitimate, even without the label.

I invite you to contact me for a free 15-minute consultation to help you determine whether I am the right fit for you. Achieving help for trauma or PTSD, like any other reason for coming to therapy, is predicated on a good therapeutic fit.

Recommended Books

The book links on this page are Amazon Associate links; if you choose to make a purchase through them, I may earn a small commission which I use to fund my low-cost counselling resource lists. Your support is greatly appreciated.

How To Keep House While Drowning: A Gentle Approach to Cleaning and Organizing by KC Davis (2022)

While Marie Kondo taught me to let go of a lot, KC Davis helped me to forgive myself, no matter the state of my home. A boon to neurodivergent folks, those struggling with mental health issues, or anyone else who is overwhelmed by life, therapist KC Davis, offers practical, forgiving strategies and care tasks that we can all use. Highly recommended.

What My Bones Know: A Memoir of Healing From Complex Trauma by Stephanie Foo (2022)

A searing, courageous, no-holds-barred memoir of the author’s lived experience of complex PTSD. She also shares her path to recovery.

The Body Keeps The Score: Brain, Mind and Body in the Healing of Trauma by Bessel van der Kolk (2014).

Seminal, comprehensive text on the neurobiology of trauma that is approachable and readable. One of the most frequently recommended books on trauma.

8 Keys to Safe Trauma Recovery: Take-Charge Strategies to Empower Your Healing by Babette Rothschild (2010)

A gentle approach to trauma resolution, emphasizing the importance of choosing strategies that work well for you personally.


9-8-8 Suicide Crisis Helpline

Call or text 9-8-8, from anywhere in Canada, 24/7.

Stand Informed Legal Advice Services

A program of the Community Legal Assistance Society, providing up to 3 hours of free, trauma-informed and confidential advice with a lawyer for any BC resident who was sexually assaulted in BC. You do not need to be low-income to qualify. A lawyer will explain your rights, explain the legal options available to you and connect you with resources, if applicable. If you are unsure of whether you would qualify for this program, please contact the office.

Crime Victims Assistance Program

Funded counselling for victims of crime, immediate family members and witnesses. Call for eligibility.


Trauma-informed counselling and services for refugees. Individual and group support.

Crime Victims Assistance Program

Assists victims, immediate family members and some witnesses in coping with the effects of violent crime by providing qualifying individuals with financial benefits to help offset financial losses and assist in recovery.

Reduced-Cost Counselling [PDF]

A resource list of lower-cost professional counselling options in Vancouver. Corrections and suggestions welcome.

BC Society for Male Survivors of Sexual Abuse

Individual and group counselling on a sliding scale.

Specialized Counselling & Trauma Services – Family Services of Greater Vancouver


Professional counselling for women, children, survivors of incest/trauma/sexual abuse, pregnant women with a trauma history and those experiencing family violence.

Canadian Mental Health Association

National organization promoting mental health for all.

Vancouver Access and Assessment Centre (AAC)

604-675-3700 – Joseph and Rosalie Segal Centre, Vancouver Hospital, Level 1, East Entrance

7 days a week: 7:30am-11pm. Phone, walk-in and outreach support for urgent, non life-threatening mental health and addictions issues. Response times vary. Serves residents of Vancouver.

Here to Help

BC-based website offering comprehensive information on a wealth of mental health conditions and addictions concerns.